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Landcover Modeling

Species Distribution Modeling

The Relative Impacts of Projected Climate and Land-use Change on Conterminous United States Bird Species from 2001 to 2075

Species distribution modeling was used to assess the relative impacts of climate and land-use change on fifty bird species for the conterminous United States. Species presence data, current and projected land-cover data, current and projected climate data, and topographic data were used in a maximum entropy modeling framework to assess impacts of climate and land-cover on bird distributions for 2001, and for multiple 2075 scenarios.

The following provides access to output data for this assessment, including:

  1. Output range maps for 2001 and 2075 for each of the fifty modeled species
  2. Images (maps) of the predictor variables (covariates) used to construct the species models
  3. Comprehensive spreadsheet providing quantitative output results reported in the accompanying paper.
Sohl, T.L., 2014. The relative impacts of climate and land-use change on conterminous United States bird species from 2001 to 2075. PLoS ONE 9(11): e112251. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0112251

Species Data Download (readme) Range Map Comparison Species Photo
American Goldfinch American_Goldfinch_Data.zip
Anna's Hummingbird Annas_Hummingbird_Data.zip
Baird's Sparrow Bairds_Sparrow_Data.zip
Band-tailed Pigeon Band_Tailed_Pigeon_Data.zip
Black-capped Chickadee Black_Capped_Chickadee_Data.zip
Blue-winged Teal Blue_Winged_Teal_Data.zip
Bobolink Bobolink_Data.zip
Brown-headed Cowbird Brown_Headed_Cowbird_Data.zip
Brown Thrasher Brown_Thrasher_Data.zip
Cactus Wren Cactus_Wren_Data.zip
Carolina Wren Carolina_Wren_Data.zip
Chestnut-collared Longspur Chestnut_Collared_Longspur_Data.zip
Dickcissel Dickcissel_Data.zip
Downy Woodpecker Downy_Woodpecker_Data.zip
Eastern Kingbird Eastern_Kingbird_Data.zip
Ferruginous Hawk Ferruginous_Hawk_Data.zip
Gambel's Quail Gambels_Quail_Data.zip
Grasshopper Sparrow Grasshopper_Sparrow_Data.zip
Gray Partridge Gray_Partridge_Data.zip
Gray Vireo Gray_Vireo_Data.zip
Great Blue Heron Great_Blue_Heron_Data.zip
Great Horned Owl Great_Horned_Owl_Data.zip
Green-winged Teal Green_Winged_Teal_Data.zip
Hooded Warbler Hooded_Warbler_Data.zip
Lark Bunting Lark_Bunting_Data.zip
Lark Sparrow Lark_Sparrow_Data.zip
Northern Harrier Northern_Harrier_Data.zip
Northern Pintail Northern_Pintail_Data.zip
Orchard Oriole Orchard_Oriole_Data.zip
Painted Bunting Painted_Bunting_Data.zip
Pied-billed Grebe Pied_Billed_Grebe_Data.zip
Pileated Woodpecker Pileated_Woodpecker_Data.zip
Pygmy Nuthatch Pygmy_Nuthatch_Data.zip
Red-eyed Vireo Red_Eyed_Vireo_Data.zip
Red-headed Woodpecker Red_Headed_Woodpecker_Data,zip.zip
Red-tailed Hawk Red_Tailed_Hawk_Data.zip
Ruby-throated Hummingbird Ruby_Throated_Hummingbird_Data.zip
Savannah Sparrow Savannah_Sparrow_Data.zip
Scissor-tailed Flycatcher Scissor_Tailed_Flycatcher_Data.zip
Sedge Wren Sedge_Wren_Data.zip
Sharp-tailed Grouse Sharp_Tailed_Grouse_Data.zip
Short-eared Owl Short_Eared_Owl_Data.zip
Sora Sora_Data.zip
Tufted Titmouse Tufted_Titmouse_Data.zip
Vesper Sparrow Vesper_Sparrow_Data.zip
Western Kingbird Western_Kingbird_Data.zip
Western Meadowlark Western_Meadowlark_Data.zip
Western Tanager Western_Tanager_Data.zip
White-headed Woodpecker White_Headed_Woodpecker_Data.zip
Yellow-headed Blackbird Yellow_Headed_Blackbird_Data.zip

Maxent uses spatially explicit predictor variables (covariates) to score presence likelihood for each pixel. Variables used in this assessment include current (2001) and projected (2075) climate data, current (2001) and projected (2075) land-cover data, and topographic data. The following zip file contains ERDAS .img files for each of the predictor variables used in this assessment, as well as a readme that describes the data.

Download predictor variables

Tabular data of assessment results are provided in the Excel spreadsheet found below. Information contained in the spreadsheet included all quantitative modeling data used to construct the tables and graphics in the paper. Each spreadsheet page provides the output data used to construct figures 1-5 in the paper. This includes:

  1. AUC scores for all 2001 model runs.
  2. Percentage of variable contribution to model output for the primary 2001 run (as provided by Maxent)
  3. Percentage (area) of the conterminous United States with suitable range for a given species for each of the three 2001 model runs.
  4. Change in species range from 2001 to 2075, for each scenario
  5. Ratio of 2075 range change due to land-cover change versus climate change.
Download results spreadsheet

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